Asal Usul Nama Tempat dan Nama Diri di Bali

Toponimi di Bali

Dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia IV tahun 2008:

Toponimi = Cabang onomastika yang menyelidiki nama tempat.

Onomastika = Penyelidikan tentang asal-usul, bentuk dan makna dari nama diri, terutama nama orang dan        tempat.

Kali ini, saya mencoba mengungkap asal usul nama tempat dan nama diri di Bali melalui observasi langsung, penelusuran kepada sumber (wawancara), serta studi literatur/ kajian pustaka. Walaupun demikian, masih banyak nama atau kata yang masih perlu diteliti dan diungkapkan asal usulnya.

Memang tidak mudah untuk menelusuri asal usul kata dan nama tempat suatu daerah. Tetapi saya mecoba menyajikannya semaksimal mungkin dengan pendekatan ilmiah. Berikut beberapa toponimi yang berhasil saya rangkum:

  1. Bali => Balidwipa = bali = banten = sesajen, persembahan, sesaji. Dwipa = pulau (sanskerta)
  1. Kuta => Tempat berlindung (KBBI IV, 2008). “Kuta” berarti benteng. Nama pantai ini diberikan oleh Gajah Mada ketika melabuhkan perahu-perahunya pertama kali untuk invasi ke Bali pada saat Bali dikuasai Raja Mengwi abad ke-18, yang dahulu dinamakan Kuta Nimba. Nimba berarti alas atau hutan.
  1. Legian => Berasal dari bahasa Jawa Kuno “Legi” yang berarti manis. Dahulu, namanya Karang Kemanisan. Karang bermakna desa. Dalam kalender Jawa, ada hari bernama Legi, begitu juga di kalender Bali.
  1. Jimbaran => “Jimbar” yang berarti hamparan luas. Letaknya di pesisir pantai barat Bali. Sekarang menjadi pusat makanan laut terkenal di Bali, dengan restoran makanan laut di tepi pantai Jimbaran yang terhampar luas.
  1. Uluwatu =>”Ulu” berarti puncak, ujung, atas dan “Watu” berarti batu (Sansekerta). Artinya, sebuah pura yang berada di puncak atau di atas batu. Lokasinya di Bali Selatan, tepatnya di Desa Pecatu, di atas karang dan menghadap langsung laut selatan Indonesia.
  1. Sanur => “Saha” dan “Nuhur”, bermakna memohon datang ke suatu tempat atau semangat untuk mengunjungi suatu tempat. Konon, Sanur merupakan suatu tempat pencarian perdamaian dan penempatan spiritualitas. Pantai Sanur merupakan Sunrise Beach atau pantai matahari terbit yang terletak di sisi timur garis pantai Bali.
  1. Bendega => nelayan. Menjadi nama restoran makanan laut di Jimbaran.
  1. Jukung => perahu nelayan. Merupakan perahu kayu tradisional nelayan Bali dengan penyeimbang di kanan dan kiri perahu ini.

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Balinese Classical and Traditional Dances, Lotus Pond Ubud

Tarian Tradisional Bali masih sering ditampilkan untuk umum. Salah satu hiburan tarian ini menjadi andalan pariwisata Bali selain keindahan alam dan seni.

Balinese Traditional Dance still performs for pubic. This might be the landmark of Bali tourism to attract the tourists around the world besides it nature and art.

Tepatnya di Puri Taman Teratai, Ubud, Gianyar Bali, menampilkan 6 jenis tarian tradisional Bali yang diiringi oleh Tabuh Liar Samas. Cukup bayar Rp80.000,-/orang, kita dapat menonton 6 jenis tarian dan iringan gamelan Bali selama kurang lebih 1 jam 40 menit.

Lotus Pond Palace, Ubud, Gianyar Bali, shows 6 types of Balinese traditional dances, music by Gamelan Tabuh Liar Samas. Only Rp80.000,-/person, we can enjoy 6 performances of Balinese traditional dances by Balinese gamelan music.

 

1. Tabuh Liar Samas

Liar Samas kelompok musik gamelan yang diciptakan oleh seorang komposer terkenal Bali tahun 1920an bernama I Wayan Lotring. Karya Liar Samas ini terinspirasi dengan keindahan pantai Kuta dengan perahu nelaya tradisional didorong oleh angin. Lotring yang berpengalaman dalam musik tradisional Bali, telah menggambungkan elemen tradisional dan jenis/ aliran musik lainnya.

Liar Samas is an instrumental piece that was composed by a Bali most famous composer in the 20s, I Wayan Lotring. The piece was inspired by a the beautiful scenery of the Kuta Beach with its traditional boats blown away by wind. Lotring with his experience in Balinese music, combines the traditional elements with other genres. This makes the elaboration reach and offer a wider range of musical culture of many different gamelan genre. 

2. Tari Penyambutan Welcome Dance

Tarian pertama yang kita saksikan ialah Tari Penyambutan yang ditampilkan oleh kelompok tari remaja bernama Chandra Wangi, Chandra berarti bulan, Wangi berarti harum, dengan makna membawa perdamaian dan harmoni ke seluruh manusia dan alam.

“Chandra Wangi” is a dance group of delicate and pure young teenage girls formed in the image of Goddess of the moon (Chandra). Her smiles spread a sweet fragance (Wangi) and bring peace and harmony to all.

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Trunyan, Pristine Cemetery But Less Travelled in Bali

Bali has a lot of beautiful exotic peaceful places to visit before you die. Moreover, Bali has the traditional villages spread over Bali island within its original local culture, beliefs, philosophy and way of life.

Bali memiliki banyak tempat yang indah, eksotis nan damai patut dikunjungi sebelum Anda tutup usia. Bahkan, Bali telah banyak terdapat desa adat yang masih terjaga dengan keaslian dan kearifan lokal, kepercayaan, filosofi dan pandangan hidup.

Only around 65 km from Kuta (Ngurah Rai Int’l Airport) to the north, located in Bangli Regency, exactly in Kintamani region, you may glance at the best scenery of range of mountainous (volcano) Batur Mt. and Lake Batur, (active volcano) Agung Mt.

Hanya sekitar 65 km dari Kuta (Bandara Ngurah Rai) ke arah utara, Kab. Bangli, tepatnya bernama Kintamani, maka kita akan terpukau dengan pemandangan rangkaian pegunungan: Gunung Batur, Danau Batur, Gunung Agung.

From Kintamani hilltop, drive down along the 7-km-long and narrow-road to reach the village of Trunyan. You will arrive at the traditional village, where society lives below the green fresh steep hill. However the society lives also in poverty.

Dari atas bukit Kintamani, telusuri jalan sempit sepanjang 7 km untuk  mencapai desa Trunyan. Kita akan tiba di desa adat yang penduduknya tinggal di bawah perbukitan hijau dan sejuk. Sayangnya, masyarakat setempat masih tinggal di bawah garis kemiskinan.

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Melalui program CSR, Philips menerangi Desa Trunyan ini.

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Suasanan desa adat Trunyan Bali yang masih perlu peningkatan pembangunan dan perekonomian.

The portrait of traditional village of Trunyan, where people live in poverty, needed more improvement of economy and development.???????????????????????????????

Dari Desa Trunyan, kita menumpang kapal boat yang kita sewa seharga Rp200.000/orang/ boat/PP (ini pun hasil dari tawar-menawar)… We hopped on the boat for Rp200.000/person/boat/return (after a hard bargaining)…???????????????????????????????

Pemandangan menakjubkan perpaduan antara danau nan hijau, tebing bebatuan ditumbuhi semak belukar dan pepohonan.

The perfect mixture of untouched green lake, steeply sloppy hill with bush and woods…

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Setibanya di pintu gerbang kuburan trunyan, langsung turun dari kapal motor dan berfoto ria walaupun disambut perasaan khawatir dan aroma misteri yang menyelimuti.

We hopped off the boat by the small jetty at the gate of Trunyan cemetery then taking pictures though we felt worried, anxious, and mystery beyond the old unique cemetery…
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Tengkorak kepala manusia berjejer rapi di atas bebatuan di tengah hutan dan pepohonan besar.

The human head skulls are line up neatly on the stone shelves in the middle of jungle and big trees.

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In this final resting place, the bodies of the deceased are just covered in cloth and rudimentary bamboo cages. These cages are flimsy and practically leave the body out in the open to the elements.

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Walaupun banyak mayat terbaring dan tengkorak manusia, tapi bau busuk pun tak tercium sama sekali karena pohon besar yang satu ini, disebut pohon taruh menyan (pohon menyan) atau Banyan Tree yang dapat menghilangkan atau menetralisir bau busuk mayat tersebut.

The huge banyan tree seems to stand as a guarding and protective figure of  this cemetery. Its leafs carpet the ground around the gravesite and presumably this is part of the way in which the tree keeps the area free from unwelcome odors and so on.

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Sepulangnya dari makam tersebut, kami mendapatkan banyak pelajaran tentang budaya dan kebudayaan setempat yang sangat menghargai leluluhurnya dan mempertahankan kearfian lokal yang tak lekang oleh waktu.

Returning across the lake local people are travelling by boat to the cemetery, it seems to pay their respects to the dead. They smile and wave as their boat glides on by; they seem to realize what a pleasant part of the world they live in and may rest in peace in one day.

 

 

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Selamat bereksplorasi

Sumber: Foto Pribadi Canon Prosumer

Dalam foto: Ridwan Arifin, Yulia Fitriyah (Istri)

Ogoh Ogoh, Bali Giant Puppet Before Nyepi

Ogoh Ogoh atau boneka berukuran raksasa terbuat dari kertas dan gabus (steroform) serta bahan lainnya dilakukan sehari sebelum Nyepi. Ogoh-ogoh is a large doll made ​​of paper and cork, to parade before Nyepi Day in Bali. Pengarakan Ogoh ogoh ini dimulai pukul 15.00 WITA hingga terbenam matahari.

Berikut foto parade Ogoh Ogoh di Bali tahun 2014:

IMG_6922 Ogoh ogoh ini diusung dari depan Hotel Discovery hingga ke tepi pantai Kuta. Inilah yang disebut Universality of Culture. Ogoh-ogoh tersebut dikenal sejak jaman Dalem Balingkang dimana pada saat itu ogoh-ogoh dipakai pada saat upacara pitra yadnya. Pendapat lain menyebutkan ogoh-ogoh tersebut terinspirasi dari tradisi Ngusaba Ndong-Nding di desa Selat Karangasem.     IMG_6929

Anak kecil pun ikut memeriahkan perayaan Ogoh ogoh dengan menggotong Ogoh ogoh berukuran kecil.

 

IMG_6934  Kids in Action!!!

Nyepi is actually held in celebration of Saka New Year, a day to ask the Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (creator) to maintain alignment between human beings and the universe. During Nyepi, Hindus adhere to Amati Geni (abstinence from lighting fires), Amati Karya (abstinence from working), Amati Lelanguan (abstinence from having fun) and Amati Lelungan (abstinence from traveling).

IMG_6935 IMG_6936 IMG_6928 dan jalan pun ditutup… sorry, the road is closed!

Tahun 2014, beberapa tempat di Bali dilarang menyelenggarakan parade Ogoh Ogoh karena alasan menjaga keamanan dan kekhawatiran adanya unsur politik (dari Parpol) menjelang Pemilu Legisltif 2014. Kecamatan Kuta Selatan tepatnya Jimbaran dan Ungasan, Uluwatu dsk. serta Ubud yang mendapat larangan untuk mengadakan perayaan Ogoh Ogoh.

Inilah suasana di Jl. Legian Kuta yang sepi dan dipadati oleh Ogoh Ogoh, pemerintah setempat mengadakan lomba Ogoh Ogoh:

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Suasana Jl. Legian yang lengan tak seperti biasanya karena jalan ini ditutup dan bebas dari kendaraan. Ogoh Ogoh akan diarak melalui jalan ini hingga ke tepi pantai Kuta.

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Di era modern ini, Ogoh Ogoh tidak hanya sosok raksasa dan roh jahat, melainkan Ogoh Ogoh dalam berbagai bentuk. Inilah wajah Ogoh ogoh di Jl. Legian Kuta: THE OGOH OGOH FACES

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The prayers for the celebration of Nyepi, the holy day of silence for Balinese Hindus on Monday, include: “May all beings be happy”. Natural harmony in the relationship between man and the universe is very important for Balinese Hindus

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Sumber Foto: Pribadi by Canon 500D

Sumber Infromasi:

http://www.baliorti.com/2014/03/information-about-ogoh-ogoh-parade-2014.html

http://www.gobalitour.com/ogoh-ogoh-bali.html

http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/03/29/universality-culture-ogoh-ogoh-and-nebuta.html

 

 

“Mamukur”: After “Ngaben” Ritual in Bali

In Hindu Bali, the process of ritual post “Ngaben” (theCremation Ceremony, is the ritual performed in Bali to send the deceased to the next life. The body of the deceased will be placed a s if sleeping, and the family will continue to treat the deceased as sleeping, as follow:

Dalam Agama Hindu Bali, proses pasca-“Ngaben” (upacara agama dengan pembakaran mayat) ialah sebagai berikut:

1. Ngaben

2. Ngeroras/ Mamukur/ Nyekah/ Panileman/ Magiliria

I took some best moment pictures of Ngeroras ritual by my smartphone:

Berikut upacara Ngeroras yang saya dapati dan langsung diabadikan dengan ponsel pintar pribadi:

20140112_123817    20140112_123839 

 

 

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20140112_12381020140112_12383620140112_123833

 

Upacara Ngeroras ditujukan untuk menghormati para leluhur atau orang-orang yang telah meninggal dunia. Ngerors sendiri berasal dari Kata Ro yang bermakna dua dan Ras bermakna pisah sehingga kalau dijabarkan secara elaboratif, Ngeroras berarti pisah dua kaki.

Ngeroras ceremony is to respect the ancestors or the passed away relatives. Ngeroras is derived from the word Ro means ‘two’ and Ras means ‘to seperate’. Thus, Ngeroras is ‘to seperate two legs’.

For your advance information, The climax of Ngaben is the burning of the whole structure, together with the body of the deceased. The fire is necessary to free the spirit from the body and enable reincarnation.

Artikel terkait:

http://bali.panduanwisata.com/festival/upacara-ngeroras/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngaben

“Tidak” atau “Belum” Dalam Bahasa Bali

Tidak, Belum, Nggak dalam bahasa Bali:

-> “Nenten” dibaca /nentәn/ atau singkatnya “ten” dibaca /tәn/, ucapan ke orangtua dan lebih halus derajatnya.
-> “Tusing” atau singkatnya “sing”, ucapan untuk ke sesama dan ucapan sehari-hari.

Dalam bahasa Inggris: “No” atau “Not” atau “Not yet”

Contoh:

-> Saya tidak punya uang = Nenten medue jinah.

-> Mari makan! Tidak, terima kasih! = Ngiring ngerayunan! Ten, matur suksma!

-> Tidak mau = Sing nya

 

Salam Takzim!

Wkwkwkwk: Bahasa Ketawa dalam Ragam Tulisan

Beda budaya, beda bahasa, beda gaya ketawa.

Satu kejadian lucu, setelah tulis status di FB, mengenai tulisan “wkwkwk”, teman sekamar (WN Taiwan) bertanya, itu artinya apa? Bahkan sampai dicari di google translate, tapi tidak ada terjemahannya, lalu dikasih tahu bahwa itu maksudnya ketawa. Terus dia bilang seharusnya ditulis “kekekekek” bukan /doubleyou/ (w) /kei/ (k) /doubleyou/ (w) /kei/ (k).

Onomatope

Ini disebut gejala ‘onomatopoeia’ bahasa. Onomatope bahasa Indonesia berbeda dengan onomatope bahasa Cina/Taiwan. Onomatope berasal dari kata bahasa Yunani yang berarti “membuat nama.”)

Onomatope berarti “nama” yang diberikan kepada suara. Itu adalah sebuah tiruan bunyi atau kata meniru suara (seperti jebret, ahay, gubrak, prit, duar, jeger, dsb).
Tetapi kadang kita sulit untuk sulit untuk menggambarkannya dalam sebuah tulisan. Continue reading

Penerjemahan Idiom dan Pepatah (Popular Indonesian – English Idioms & Proverbs)

PENERJEMAHAN IDIOM dan PEPATAH Inggris-Indonesia:

IDIOM (Ungkapan)

Talking about the devil –> Lagi diomongin, orangnya datang!

I have been in your shoes –>Sudah makan asam garam, sudah pernah merasakan hal yang sama/ mengalami sebelumnya.

Go Dutch –> Bayar masing-masing

Share the bill –> Patungan

Rain cats and dogs –> Hujan sangat deras

Pass the buck –> Lempar batu sembunyi tangan

Breadwinner –> Tulang Punggung

Blabbermouth –> Cerewet/ Omong sana sini

Misheard –> Plesetan

Cut Version –> Dibuang Sayang

Apple to Apple –> Sebanding/Seimbang/Setimpal

Couch Potato –> Orang senang menonton TV dan bemalas-malasan

Shoulder to Shoulder –> Bahu Membahu

Cup of Tea –> Itu “gua banget”

Piece of Cake –> Mudah/Gampang

Tear and Wear –> Lusuh dan Buluk

 

PROVERBS (Peribahasa/ Kata Mutiara/ Pepatah)

Killing two birds with one stone –> Sekali dayung dua tiga pulau terlewati/ Sambil menyelam minum air.

No use crying over the spilt milk –> Nasi sudah jadi bubur

Even homers sometimes nod —> Tak ada gading yang tak retak (nobody’s perfect)

The pitcher goes so often to the well that it is broken at last —>Sepandai-pandainya tupai melompat, akhirnya jatuh juga

Nobody’s perfect –> tak ada gading yang tak retak

The grass is always greener on the other side –> rumput tetangga lebih hijau

Your tongue is fire –> mulutmu harimaumu

Fire in the pants –> kebakaran jenggot

Robbing Peter to pay Paul –> Gali lobang tutup lobang

The early bird gets the worm –> Siapa cepat dia yang dapat

There is no such thing as a free lunch –> Ada udang di balik batu/ tak ada makan siang gratis

One scabbed sheep is enough to spoil a flock –> Sebab nila setitik rusak susu sebelanga

Don’t bite a hand that feeds you/ To cherish a viper in one’s bosom –> Air susu dibalas air tuba

A thorn in one’s flesh –> Seperti duri dalam daging

When in Rome, do as Rome does –> Di mana tanah dipijak, disitu langit dijunjung

Bean-pods are noisiest when dry –> Tong kosong nyaring bunyinya

A penny saved is a penny gained –> Hemat pangkal kaya

No pains, no gains/ Rome wasn’t built in a day/Nothing ventured nothing gained–> berakit-rakit ke hulu berenang-renang ke tepian

One rotten apple will spoil the whole barrel –> Karena nila setitik, rusak susu sebelanga

Give him an inch and he will take the yard/ Beggars can’t be choosers –> Dikasih hati minta jantung

Misfortunes never come singly –> Sudah jatuh tertimpa tangga

Diligence is the mother of good luck –> Rajin pangkal pandai

Empty vessels make the most noise –> Tong kosong nyaring bunyinya

It takes two to tango/ Bad workers blame their tools –> Buruk muka cermin dibelah

Many hands make light work –> Berat sama dipikul, ringan sama dijinjing

Cleanliness is close to godliness –> Kebersihan sebagian dari iman

“good translators are both bilingual and bicultural”

salam takzim!

Ridwan Arifin

sumber: Wikipedia, Oxford Dictionary 2010, KBBI IV 2008, Ungkapan & Idiom Bahasa Indonesia 2008 dan berbagai sumber, http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Indonesian_proverbs, http://englishtips4u.com/2013/06/01/engproverb-indonesian-proverbs-and-their-english-equivalents/

https://www.quora.com/

http://www.fluentu.com/english/blog/useful-english-proverbs/

A Glimpse at Balinese Dance

Balinese Dance

The people of Bali just love to dance and this type of performance plays a key role in their cultural and religious ceremonies. Many of these dances were created to please the gods, and they involve the dancer entering a trance. Other performances are based on the old stories that have kept the Balinese entertained for generations. There can be a great deal of energy and fun associated with this local art, and it is usually something that visitors to the island will enjoy.

 

Balinese Dance

 

History of Balinese Dance

It is impossible to say when dance first became popular on the island of Bali, but it has been an important part of life for as far back as the local history can be traced. Many of the dances that are popular today can be traced back to the fourteenth century, when performances become popular among people at court, and with the peasantry. The Balinese tend to view traditional theat and dance as being one and the same thing, and they are collectively referred to as sesolahan. It is only really since the arrival of tourists, that the local people have started offering short dance performances as separate from drama productions – the local people continue to prefer the older way of doing things. There is a strong Indian influence on Balinese dance, and the nearby island of Java has also contributed much to the Bali dancing tradition. The local dance traditions are viewed by the people as a key way to preserve their culture and stories. It is common for there to be stories in the local news lamenting how some of these dances might die out one day because there are not enough young people learning them. If this extinction ever happened it would be viewed as a great national loss – as well of a loss for the rest of the world.

Balinese Dance and Religion

Balinese dance is closely linked with the island’s religious traditions. It is believed that in order for the local people to enjoy prosperity, they need to please the gods and these deities get pleasure from watching humans dance. Some of the most famous routines, such as the Sang Hyang Dedari, the dancer will go into a trance, so that they can allow a spiritual force to enter their body. It is said that both benevolent and demonic gods will visit Bali, but there are special dances to welcome or placate as required. There are also sacred dances that need to be performed in order to cleanse the temples.

Balinese Dance

Types of Balinese Dance

It is possible to break down the Balinese dances into three distinct types:

  • Balih Balihan dances are simply for entertainment and enjoyment.
  • Bebali dances are used as part of ceremonies.
  • Wali dances are considered sacred and traditionally they are only performed in the inner court of the temple.

There are many different types of Balih Balihan dance including:

  • Kecak is better known to westerners as the monkey dance. It involves monkey like movements and chanting the word “cak” – the purpose of this is to put the dancer into a trance.
  • Janger is a type of social dance that is most often perfomed by children these days. It involves boys and girls dividing into four lines so that they form a square (boys face boys while girls face girls), and each group has their own routine to perform.
  • Legong dance was originally a dance only performed in front of royalty, and it involves reenactments of traditional stories in the form of dance. Only girls who have not yet reached puberty will be involved in this type of performance, and it involves tough training that begins at a young age.
  • The Kebyar dance has its own style of gamelan music to accompany it. This dance is performed by two women – each will have a fan in one hand.

The sacred dances would include:

  • The Barong dance involves dancers pretending to be mythical creatures including thedemon queen Rangda.
  • Sang Hyang Dedari needs to be performed by prepubescent girls, and the goal is to please the gods. The two girls dance themselves into a trance, so that a special spiritual force will be able to enter their bodies.
  • The Pendet dance is performed in order to purify the temple. During specific times during this routine the dancers will throw flower petals into the air.
  • The Baris dance is performed by men, and it reenacts the preparations a warrior might undertake on the eve of battle.
  • The Rejang dance involves slow trance like movements that are designed to please the gods. It is always performed by females.

The most well known of the ceremonial dances would be Gambuh, and it is a type of dance drama accompanied by gamelan music. It is based on a series of poems that describe the adventures of a Javanese prince who is believed to have lived in the sixteenth century. The ceremonial dances are often performed in temples, but they are not considered as sacred as the Wali dances.

Best Place to See Balinese Dance

Some of the best places to witness Balinese dance on a trip to Bali would include:

  • Ubud is often described as the cultural capital of the island, and there are regular dance shows in venues around the town.
  • There are sacred dances held at regular times throughout the year in the temples.Indo.com provides a list of the most popular events.
  • The bigger hotels will often have dining with Balinese dancing as entertainment for guests.
  • There are regular kecak dance shows at Uluwatu temple which is not far from Kuta. This performance takes place around sunset, and those who have been claim that it is an unforgettable experience.

Learn Balinese Dance

Local people will start to learn Balinese dance at around 5 years of age. If tourists are keen to have a go at learning the basics, they will find that there are hotels offering this type of class as an option for guests – one venue offering this option would be Mara River Safari Lodge.